Every eight minutes in India, a specimen of human bone is sold.Since the last century, it has become the world’s largest exporter and trading hub of human bones.Workers work on skeletons at a human bone factory in Kolkata.The fiery cauldrons boil to melt the remains of rotting flesh;Outside, bones arranged in parts were basking in the sun;Shirtless artisans in the shade apply special materials to whiten it;In the workshop, a finished product is being strung by wire series;Lorries with canvas wrapped around iron gates wait to leave.It was time for dinner, and the workers would put down their work and sit in piles of “goods” at will. At last, they lit a cigarette and chatted with each other while casually playing with the smooth and white skull heads.He looked at chickens in a slaughterhouse, fish on a chopping block.In fact, as early as 1985, the Indian government issued a ban on the import and export of human bones under pressure from all walks of life. However, up to now, the underground trade of human bones is still common, which is not surprising to workers and officials.The reason is nothing more than the word “interest”.The world xi Xi, all for profit, so how much money is the human bone business?According to incomplete statistics, an adult male skeleton sells for about $5,800 in overseas markets, roughly 100 times its cost.Profits that high would drive any capital crazy.And because skeleton specimens are so important in modern medicine, orders from around the world are in short supply, even if prices remain high.As to all kinds of artworks that are designed by human bones, they are loved by curious collectors, and the price of human bone specimens is more to leave a person in the dust.Demand created supply, and a sordid chain of human bones was created.At the top of the chain is a group of people known as the body collectors, whose “harvest” is not convergence “harvest”, but “acquisition”.Body collectors typically seek out poor families who cannot afford to bury their dead relatives and offer to “settle” their bodies for several thousand rubles.The bodies are sent to factories that have already been connected, processed, and then shown up thousands of miles away in hospitals or universities, where they can be studied.Of course, the source of such a body is not stable.Religiously, many Indians prefer to sink their corpses in the sacred Ganges river rather than sell them to collectors.That’s why there are a lot of dead men floating above the waves.Even so, the supply of corpse is still far from enough, since the person of new dead gather together not enough, that is about to try every means shade meng other people’s ancestor’s ze by, then appear again a group of dead road friend not dead poor road tomb raider.Of course, there are some grave keepers who are in cahoots with grave robbers, so the number of new graves being dug up soon after they are buried is hardly news.In this way, body collectors, scavengers and grave robbers form the upper reaches of the whole chain of trade in human bones.They engage in unconscionable acts for dishonest gain.Sadly, there is still no law against the trade of human bones in India, only the export of human bones.This behavior is largely responsible for the occurrence of such incidents.Those illegally obtained human skeletons are received by specific factories and processed into specimens in special ways for resale.Young Brother is a big brother among many middlemen.On the surface, the company deals in the import and export of medical equipment, but behind the scenes, it deals in the processing and export of human bones.They set up numerous small bone processing factories across India, recklessly set up their own “underground human bone empire.”In 2001, kolkata’s health authorities raided an underground factory on the outskirts of the city after a tip-off from a neighbour.But the factory of a dozen workers was littered with bones, conservatively estimated to contain more than five truckloads of goods, and perhaps more, according to seized invoices and shipping lists from around the world.Police arrested Vinish, the owner of young Brother.Allen, but he was released on bail after only a token two nights in jail.The explanation given to the public is that there is no clear evidence of criminal homicide.This is hidden in the chain of huge interests under the snake, so majestically preserved.Such explosive news soon disappeared from the public’s view, along with the snowflakes of sex news and gossip in the era of fast food.No one remembered that they had been boiled and boiled in an iron pot, soaked and soaked in sulfuric acid, and maintained as clean as new bones.Like a menu of pizza flavors, they sit on a display sheet on a human bones website, priced for anyone to choose from.Buyers just make one more phone call, click their fingers, pack up and ship it across the ocean to your door.It’s easier than ordering a pizza.If human bone trade is so profitable, why is it only done in India?Shouldn’t such a cost-effective “human blood steamed bread” attract people to rob it?It all starts with the beginning of the trade in human bones.In the middle of the 18th century, with the footsteps of the first industrial Revolution, a mighty British empire slowly emerged into history.During this period, Britain experienced several changes, relying on the liberation of the mind brought by the Renaissance, and the rapid development of science and technology, the first is modern medicine.In the development of modern medicine, it is gradually inclined to rely on scientific knowledge to understand the structure of the human body.New professional characteristics led doctors to emphasize dissection, a tendency that led to a great demand for cadavers in the 18th and 19th centuries.When the corpses in the cemetery were not enough, they had to go to the tomb robbers to buy them. Gradually, the corpses in the cemetery were not enough, so they murdered some lower people to get the bodies. The crazy villains also created a “muzzle strangling method” to keep the bodies intact as much as possible, in exchange for a higher price.Driven by huge interests, grave robbery and murder by buying body frequently occurred in Britain.The murder of Birkhair in Ireland in October 1928, in particular, inflamed public anger to the utmost.Finally, in 1832, the British government introduced the Dissecting Act, which clearly defined the ownership of cadavers and limited doctors’ rights to dissect, in order to combat rampant crime in the country.But in the long run, the Law does not legally prohibit the illegal trade in cadavers.Similarly, the British government only banned the trade of cadavers at home, and there were no restrictions on the trade of cadavers overseas. So doctors focused on India, which had just been colonized by the British, and began to transport human bones from India in large quantities to supply domestic demand.Poor India became the first country to systematically operate the human bone trade chain, and in the following 100 years gradually occupied more than half of the human bone market in Europe, America and even the world.Over time, Indian craftsmen became more skilled at bone making, and the religious caste system brought natural cheap labor, making it difficult for human bones from other countries to compete with India in terms of quality and price.This continued until 1985.During a routine customs inspection, they found a batch of skeletons of children, no less than 1500!Under this many lost children’s parents can not sit still, they firmly believe that there must be their children, is this kind of hateful human bone trade induced tragedy, between the voice of human bone trade, a wave of high waves.Child abduction and taxidermy, you put them together, and they make a big difference.Unable to remain silent any longer, the government seized the shipment and, under pressure and the seriousness of the matter, enacted a law banning the export of human bones.But when the gates of evil are opened, there is only a bottomless pit.The capitalists who have tasted the sweet taste of human bone trafficking, how could they just give up the interests in hand and hand over the fat meat to others?After the ban was issued, many companies changed their names and continued to sell human bones in the name of medical equipment manufacturers.The only difference might be bribing a few more officials to pay the customs more.To this day, they can still be found in various unofficial channels, and the scarcity of supplies caused by the ban on export has driven up the price of human bones.Nearly 30 years later, many things have been selectively forgotten, leaving only people accustomed to crime.The longevity of the human bone trade in India has much to do with its caste system.Indians generally believe in religion, among which Hinduism is in the majority. Hinduism divides people into four classes.The upper class feel dirty when they look at the lower class.There are untouchables on the fourth level, who can be killed at will.With such a hierarchy, it is hardly surprising that a trade in human bones arose.In the eyes of the upper castes, the bones sold are not worth a cow or a pig.A stall with no stove and a kettle perched on two stones to boil milk tea in tiny, disposable clay cups for a rupee each, the scraps of which pile up in a corner trash can.They do not use washable glasses so that upper castes do not drink from the same cup as lower castes.Such extreme ideas lead to exploitation between classes and contempt for human rights.If you are poor and low caste in India, you may never get anywhere in your life.Just like the three idiots in Bollywood, the only hope is to rely on the god of faith when the family suffers sudden misfortune.Appeal after fruitless first thought is suicide, to harm their own to seek relief.After all, entrenched in society, no one cares if they live or die.What’s even sadder is that after they die, their bodies are sold for more than they could earn in a lifetime.None of us have really tried to understand the country, and there are many international stereotypes of India: poor, dirty, unsafe, misogynistic.I have been to many countries in Southeast Asia, but I have never set foot in India.For this reason, I write this article not only to reveal the darkness behind the trade in human bones, but also to explore the real causes of these suffering.The strength of China lies in our courage to face up to our past suffering and our determination to change.Even if there are facts that we cannot change by ourselves, we can and must strengthen ourselves, both the abuser and the victim.In fact, from the utilitarian point of view, human bone trade does not infringe on the interests of anyone, and from a certain level, it can even be counted as a win-win situation.The poor families who sell the bodies do not have to pay for the funeral expenses, but also receive a sum of money to support their household expenses, middlemen make profits from this to feed the entire factory workers, the state collects taxes, the doctors and scholars who take the bodies can conduct more noble medical research, and the surrounding industries such as transportation are supported.But its problem is not profit, but morality.It is not a simple form, but to preserve the last and most fundamental dignity of being a human being.Dignity can’t be measured in terms of money. People can’t be objectified like goods. This is our most basic ethical concept, so some freedoms must be curbed.I like the words of My teacher Luo Xiang: “If freedom is not restricted, it will lead to the exploitation of the weak by the strong.”Just like Fantine in the world of Miserables, in a patriarchal world, she sold her hair, her teeth and finally her body in order to survive. In a sense, she was free and had the right to freely buy and sell her organs, but the more she was so, the more deeply she was exploited.This is why we should criticize the trade of human bones, even if it can bring us some benefits in a sense, but for the sake of fairness and justice in our hearts, we must resist it.Ulpian, the famous ancient Roman jurist, believed that “justice is the stable and eternal meaning that gives every man his due rights.”That exists only in the Republic.Absolute fairness and justice never exist in the world we live in.There is no absolute good and there is no absolute evil.But we still believe in justice.Measure things by the goodness of your heart, not by the worst malice of others.Believe that this immoral trade in human bones will eventually be banned, return to dignity with bones.